So a long GC Pause can have a direct impact on response time and throughput. But there are some causes for long GC pause which you can check and avoid to increase performance. They are as follows:-
1)Insufficient heap size:-
If heap size is small then the size required then the allocation requests for new objects fail and the JVM needs to invoke garbage collections in an attempt to reclaim space for the allocations. So these frequent Full GCs cause long pauses in the application run.
To avoid long GC pause by this identify the average footprint of the application and then specify the heap size accordingly.
2)Fragmentation in the heap:-
GCs can occur more frequently due to fragmentation in the Java Heap and also sometimes causing long pauses in the GCs. This is more probable in the case of Concurrent Mark Sweep collector, also known as CMS, where the tenured generation space is not compacted with the concurrent collections. For more please go through the previous post about heap compaction
3)Explicit System Gcs:-
Full GCs could be coming from the System.gc() calls from some class in the application or from a some third party module. So check or disable by adding value in JVM parameter.
4)Other OS activities happening at the time of GC:-
Sometimes the OS activities such as the swap space or networking activity happening at the time when GC is taking place can make the GC pauses last much longer. These pauses can be of the order of few seconds to some minutes.
Apart from swapping, we should monitor if there is any i/o or network activity happening during the long GC pauses. These can be monitored using iostat and netstat tools. It is also helpful to see the CPU statistics with the mpstat tool to figure out if enough CPU resources were available during the GC pauses
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